易哈佛 \ 大学英语 \ 2019年江苏大学英语考试真题卷

2019年江苏大学英语考试真题卷

2019年江苏大学英语考试真题卷

  • 本卷共分为1大题50小题,作答时间为180分钟,总分100分,60分及格。
  • 试卷来源:易哈佛

一、单项选择题(共50题,每题2分。每题的备选项中,只有一个最符合题意)

3.

12.

20.

27.

28.On the high-speed train from Avignon (阿维尼翁) to Paris, my husband and I landed in the only remaining seats on the train, in the middle of a car, directly opposite a Frenchwoman of middle years. It was an extremely uncomfortable arrangement to be looking straight into the eyes of a stranger. My husband and I pulled out books. The woman produced a large makeup case and proceeded to freshen up. Except for a lunch break, she continued this activity for the entire three-hour trip. Every once in a while she surveyed the car with a bright-eyed glance, but never once did she catch my (admittedly fascinated) eye. My husband and I could have been a blank wall. I was amused, but some people would have felt insulted, even repulsed (厌恶的). There is something about primping in public that calls up strong emotional reactions. Partly it’s a question of hygiene. (Nearly everyone agrees that nail-paling and hair-combing are socially considered unwise to do.) And it’s a matter of degree. Grooming—a private act—has a way of negating the presence of others. I was once seated at a party with a model- actress who immediately waved a silly brush and began dusting her face at the table, demonstrating that while she was next to me, she was not with me. In fact, I am generally inhibited from this maneuver in public, except when I am in the company of cosmetics executives (when it’s considered unpleasant not to do it) or my female friends when it’s a fun just-us-girls moment. In a gathering more professional than social, I would refrain. Kathy Peiss, a history professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and an authority on American beauty rituals, says that nose-powdering in the office was an occasion for outrage in 1920’s and 30’s. Deploring the practice as a waste of company time, trade journals advised managers to discourage it among clerical workers. But how much time could it take Certainly the concern was out of proportion with the number of minutes lost. Peiss theorizes that it was the blatant assertion of a female practice in what had been an all-male province that disturbed critics. Peiss tells me that after the 30’s, pulling out a compact was no longer an issue. It became an accepted practice. I ask if she feels free to apply lipstick at a professional lunch herself. Sounding mildly shocked, she says she would save that for the privacy of her car afterward. Why Because it would be "a gesture of inappropriate femininity. " One guess is that most professional women feel this way. There is evidence of the popularity of the new lipsticks that remain in place all day without retouching. It’s amazing to think that in our talk-show society, where every sexual practice is openly discussed, a simple sex-specific gesture could still have the power to disturb. The move belongs in the female arsenal and, like weapons, must be used with caution. According to the author, "My husband, and I could have been a blank wall. " (Line 6, Para. 1) most probably means ______.

A. We were treated with an expressionless face.
B. We looked at the French woman expressionlessly.
C. We used books as a wall to avoid the woman’s eyes.
D. We were of no existence in the French woman’s eyes.

29.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. quick B. reasonable C. thoughtful D. prompt

30.The United States has a major problem on its hinds. True, Britain is facing a similar problem, but for the time being it is in America that it is graver. The only way to solve it is through education. Negroes (黑人) should know about the contributions that black individuals and groups have made towards building America. This is of vital importance for their self-respect; and it is perhaps even more important for white people to know. For if you believe that a man has no history worth mentioning, it is easy to assume that he has no value as a man. Many people believe that, since the Negro’s achievements do not appear in the history books, he did not have any. Most people are taken aback when they learn that Negroes sailed with Columbus, marched with the Spanish conquerors of South America and fought side by side with white Americans in all their wars. People are astonished when you tell them about Phillis Wheatley, who learned English as a salve in Boston and wrote first-class poetry. They have never heard of Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and a surveyor, who helped to plan the city of Washington. There has been a tendency all along to treat the black man as if he were invisible. Little has been written about the 5,000 American Negroes who fought in the Revolution against the British, but they were in every important battle. In the Anglo-American War of 1812, at least one out of every six men in the U.S. Navy was a Negro. In the Civil War, more than 200,000 black troops fought in the Union forces. How, then, did the image of the Negro as a valiant fighting man disappear To justify the hideous institution of slavery, slave-holders had to create the myth of the docile, slow-witted Negro, incapable of self-improvement, and even contented with his lot. Nothing could be further from the truth. The slave fought for his freedom at every chance he got, and there were numerous uprisings. Yet the myth of docility persisted. There are several other areas where the truth has been twisted or concealed. Most people have heard of the Negro, Carver, who invented scores of new uses for the lowly peanut. But whoever heard of Norbert Rillieux, who in 1846 invented a vacuum pan that revolutionized the sugar-refining industry Or of Elijah McCoy, who in 1872 invented the drip cup that feeds oil to the moving parts of heavy machinery How many people know that Negroes are credited with inventing such different items as ice creams, potato chips, the gas mask and the first traffic light Not many. As for the winning of the West, the black cowboy and the black frontiersman have been almost ignored, though film producers are becoming more aware of their importance. Yet in the typical trail crew of eight men that drove cattle from Texas to Kansas, at least two would have been Negroes. The black troops of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry formed one-fifth of all the mounted troops assigned to protect the frontier after the Civil War. "What difference does it make" you may ask. A lot. The cowboy is the American folk-hero. Youngsters identify with him instantly. The average cowboy film is really a kind of morality play, with good guys and bad guys and right finally triumphing over wrong. You should see the amazement and happiness on black youngsters’ faces when they learn that their ancestors really had a part in all that. According to the passage, education on Negroes’ contributions to America ______.

A. contributes to the blacks’ confidence of their value
B. proves their achievements in building the country
C. is still a major task for curriculum education
D. will solve all the conflicts between black and white people

31.On the high-speed train from Avignon (阿维尼翁) to Paris, my husband and I landed in the only remaining seats on the train, in the middle of a car, directly opposite a Frenchwoman of middle years. It was an extremely uncomfortable arrangement to be looking straight into the eyes of a stranger. My husband and I pulled out books. The woman produced a large makeup case and proceeded to freshen up. Except for a lunch break, she continued this activity for the entire three-hour trip. Every once in a while she surveyed the car with a bright-eyed glance, but never once did she catch my (admittedly fascinated) eye. My husband and I could have been a blank wall. I was amused, but some people would have felt insulted, even repulsed (厌恶的). There is something about primping in public that calls up strong emotional reactions. Partly it’s a question of hygiene. (Nearly everyone agrees that nail-paling and hair-combing are socially considered unwise to do.) And it’s a matter of degree. Grooming—a private act—has a way of negating the presence of others. I was once seated at a party with a model- actress who immediately waved a silly brush and began dusting her face at the table, demonstrating that while she was next to me, she was not with me. In fact, I am generally inhibited from this maneuver in public, except when I am in the company of cosmetics executives (when it’s considered unpleasant not to do it) or my female friends when it’s a fun just-us-girls moment. In a gathering more professional than social, I would refrain. Kathy Peiss, a history professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and an authority on American beauty rituals, says that nose-powdering in the office was an occasion for outrage in 1920’s and 30’s. Deploring the practice as a waste of company time, trade journals advised managers to discourage it among clerical workers. But how much time could it take Certainly the concern was out of proportion with the number of minutes lost. Peiss theorizes that it was the blatant assertion of a female practice in what had been an all-male province that disturbed critics. Peiss tells me that after the 30’s, pulling out a compact was no longer an issue. It became an accepted practice. I ask if she feels free to apply lipstick at a professional lunch herself. Sounding mildly shocked, she says she would save that for the privacy of her car afterward. Why Because it would be "a gesture of inappropriate femininity. " One guess is that most professional women feel this way. There is evidence of the popularity of the new lipsticks that remain in place all day without retouching. It’s amazing to think that in our talk-show society, where every sexual practice is openly discussed, a simple sex-specific gesture could still have the power to disturb. The move belongs in the female arsenal and, like weapons, must be used with caution. In the author’s opinion, she ______.

A. allows public making up on certain occasions
B. feels comfortbale when making up in public
C. only makes up on social occasions
D. makes up before any professional gatherings

32.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. radical B. terrible C. reciprocal D. rash

33.

34.The United States has a major problem on its hinds. True, Britain is facing a similar problem, but for the time being it is in America that it is graver. The only way to solve it is through education. Negroes (黑人) should know about the contributions that black individuals and groups have made towards building America. This is of vital importance for their self-respect; and it is perhaps even more important for white people to know. For if you believe that a man has no history worth mentioning, it is easy to assume that he has no value as a man. Many people believe that, since the Negro’s achievements do not appear in the history books, he did not have any. Most people are taken aback when they learn that Negroes sailed with Columbus, marched with the Spanish conquerors of South America and fought side by side with white Americans in all their wars. People are astonished when you tell them about Phillis Wheatley, who learned English as a salve in Boston and wrote first-class poetry. They have never heard of Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and a surveyor, who helped to plan the city of Washington. There has been a tendency all along to treat the black man as if he were invisible. Little has been written about the 5,000 American Negroes who fought in the Revolution against the British, but they were in every important battle. In the Anglo-American War of 1812, at least one out of every six men in the U.S. Navy was a Negro. In the Civil War, more than 200,000 black troops fought in the Union forces. How, then, did the image of the Negro as a valiant fighting man disappear To justify the hideous institution of slavery, slave-holders had to create the myth of the docile, slow-witted Negro, incapable of self-improvement, and even contented with his lot. Nothing could be further from the truth. The slave fought for his freedom at every chance he got, and there were numerous uprisings. Yet the myth of docility persisted. There are several other areas where the truth has been twisted or concealed. Most people have heard of the Negro, Carver, who invented scores of new uses for the lowly peanut. But whoever heard of Norbert Rillieux, who in 1846 invented a vacuum pan that revolutionized the sugar-refining industry Or of Elijah McCoy, who in 1872 invented the drip cup that feeds oil to the moving parts of heavy machinery How many people know that Negroes are credited with inventing such different items as ice creams, potato chips, the gas mask and the first traffic light Not many. As for the winning of the West, the black cowboy and the black frontiersman have been almost ignored, though film producers are becoming more aware of their importance. Yet in the typical trail crew of eight men that drove cattle from Texas to Kansas, at least two would have been Negroes. The black troops of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry formed one-fifth of all the mounted troops assigned to protect the frontier after the Civil War. "What difference does it make" you may ask. A lot. The cowboy is the American folk-hero. Youngsters identify with him instantly. The average cowboy film is really a kind of morality play, with good guys and bad guys and right finally triumphing over wrong. You should see the amazement and happiness on black youngsters’ faces when they learn that their ancestors really had a part in all that. Although Benjamin Banneker dedicated a lot to his country, he ______.

A. remained a slave for his whole life
B. was despised by all the white designers
C. is not mentioned in history books
D. ignored his achievements and kept quiet as usual

35.On the high-speed train from Avignon (阿维尼翁) to Paris, my husband and I landed in the only remaining seats on the train, in the middle of a car, directly opposite a Frenchwoman of middle years. It was an extremely uncomfortable arrangement to be looking straight into the eyes of a stranger. My husband and I pulled out books. The woman produced a large makeup case and proceeded to freshen up. Except for a lunch break, she continued this activity for the entire three-hour trip. Every once in a while she surveyed the car with a bright-eyed glance, but never once did she catch my (admittedly fascinated) eye. My husband and I could have been a blank wall. I was amused, but some people would have felt insulted, even repulsed (厌恶的). There is something about primping in public that calls up strong emotional reactions. Partly it’s a question of hygiene. (Nearly everyone agrees that nail-paling and hair-combing are socially considered unwise to do.) And it’s a matter of degree. Grooming—a private act—has a way of negating the presence of others. I was once seated at a party with a model- actress who immediately waved a silly brush and began dusting her face at the table, demonstrating that while she was next to me, she was not with me. In fact, I am generally inhibited from this maneuver in public, except when I am in the company of cosmetics executives (when it’s considered unpleasant not to do it) or my female friends when it’s a fun just-us-girls moment. In a gathering more professional than social, I would refrain. Kathy Peiss, a history professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and an authority on American beauty rituals, says that nose-powdering in the office was an occasion for outrage in 1920’s and 30’s. Deploring the practice as a waste of company time, trade journals advised managers to discourage it among clerical workers. But how much time could it take Certainly the concern was out of proportion with the number of minutes lost. Peiss theorizes that it was the blatant assertion of a female practice in what had been an all-male province that disturbed critics. Peiss tells me that after the 30’s, pulling out a compact was no longer an issue. It became an accepted practice. I ask if she feels free to apply lipstick at a professional lunch herself. Sounding mildly shocked, she says she would save that for the privacy of her car afterward. Why Because it would be "a gesture of inappropriate femininity. " One guess is that most professional women feel this way. There is evidence of the popularity of the new lipsticks that remain in place all day without retouching. It’s amazing to think that in our talk-show society, where every sexual practice is openly discussed, a simple sex-specific gesture could still have the power to disturb. The move belongs in the female arsenal and, like weapons, must be used with caution. According to Peiss, nose powdering in an office was criticized mainly for the reason that ______.

A. normal office work was disturbed
B. it discouraged women’s interest in career
C. male dominance was emphasized there
D. it distracted male workers’ focus on work

36.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. however B. though C. nevertheless D. so

37.The United States has a major problem on its hinds. True, Britain is facing a similar problem, but for the time being it is in America that it is graver. The only way to solve it is through education. Negroes (黑人) should know about the contributions that black individuals and groups have made towards building America. This is of vital importance for their self-respect; and it is perhaps even more important for white people to know. For if you believe that a man has no history worth mentioning, it is easy to assume that he has no value as a man. Many people believe that, since the Negro’s achievements do not appear in the history books, he did not have any. Most people are taken aback when they learn that Negroes sailed with Columbus, marched with the Spanish conquerors of South America and fought side by side with white Americans in all their wars. People are astonished when you tell them about Phillis Wheatley, who learned English as a salve in Boston and wrote first-class poetry. They have never heard of Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and a surveyor, who helped to plan the city of Washington. There has been a tendency all along to treat the black man as if he were invisible. Little has been written about the 5,000 American Negroes who fought in the Revolution against the British, but they were in every important battle. In the Anglo-American War of 1812, at least one out of every six men in the U.S. Navy was a Negro. In the Civil War, more than 200,000 black troops fought in the Union forces. How, then, did the image of the Negro as a valiant fighting man disappear To justify the hideous institution of slavery, slave-holders had to create the myth of the docile, slow-witted Negro, incapable of self-improvement, and even contented with his lot. Nothing could be further from the truth. The slave fought for his freedom at every chance he got, and there were numerous uprisings. Yet the myth of docility persisted. There are several other areas where the truth has been twisted or concealed. Most people have heard of the Negro, Carver, who invented scores of new uses for the lowly peanut. But whoever heard of Norbert Rillieux, who in 1846 invented a vacuum pan that revolutionized the sugar-refining industry Or of Elijah McCoy, who in 1872 invented the drip cup that feeds oil to the moving parts of heavy machinery How many people know that Negroes are credited with inventing such different items as ice creams, potato chips, the gas mask and the first traffic light Not many. As for the winning of the West, the black cowboy and the black frontiersman have been almost ignored, though film producers are becoming more aware of their importance. Yet in the typical trail crew of eight men that drove cattle from Texas to Kansas, at least two would have been Negroes. The black troops of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry formed one-fifth of all the mounted troops assigned to protect the frontier after the Civil War. "What difference does it make" you may ask. A lot. The cowboy is the American folk-hero. Youngsters identify with him instantly. The average cowboy film is really a kind of morality play, with good guys and bad guys and right finally triumphing over wrong. You should see the amazement and happiness on black youngsters’ faces when they learn that their ancestors really had a part in all that. Negroes’ negative impressions on people ______.

A. derived from their acts
B. turned out to be wrong
C. were copied by slave-holders
D. were passed down for generations

38.On the high-speed train from Avignon (阿维尼翁) to Paris, my husband and I landed in the only remaining seats on the train, in the middle of a car, directly opposite a Frenchwoman of middle years. It was an extremely uncomfortable arrangement to be looking straight into the eyes of a stranger. My husband and I pulled out books. The woman produced a large makeup case and proceeded to freshen up. Except for a lunch break, she continued this activity for the entire three-hour trip. Every once in a while she surveyed the car with a bright-eyed glance, but never once did she catch my (admittedly fascinated) eye. My husband and I could have been a blank wall. I was amused, but some people would have felt insulted, even repulsed (厌恶的). There is something about primping in public that calls up strong emotional reactions. Partly it’s a question of hygiene. (Nearly everyone agrees that nail-paling and hair-combing are socially considered unwise to do.) And it’s a matter of degree. Grooming—a private act—has a way of negating the presence of others. I was once seated at a party with a model- actress who immediately waved a silly brush and began dusting her face at the table, demonstrating that while she was next to me, she was not with me. In fact, I am generally inhibited from this maneuver in public, except when I am in the company of cosmetics executives (when it’s considered unpleasant not to do it) or my female friends when it’s a fun just-us-girls moment. In a gathering more professional than social, I would refrain. Kathy Peiss, a history professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and an authority on American beauty rituals, says that nose-powdering in the office was an occasion for outrage in 1920’s and 30’s. Deploring the practice as a waste of company time, trade journals advised managers to discourage it among clerical workers. But how much time could it take Certainly the concern was out of proportion with the number of minutes lost. Peiss theorizes that it was the blatant assertion of a female practice in what had been an all-male province that disturbed critics. Peiss tells me that after the 30’s, pulling out a compact was no longer an issue. It became an accepted practice. I ask if she feels free to apply lipstick at a professional lunch herself. Sounding mildly shocked, she says she would save that for the privacy of her car afterward. Why Because it would be "a gesture of inappropriate femininity. " One guess is that most professional women feel this way. There is evidence of the popularity of the new lipsticks that remain in place all day without retouching. It’s amazing to think that in our talk-show society, where every sexual practice is openly discussed, a simple sex-specific gesture could still have the power to disturb. The move belongs in the female arsenal and, like weapons, must be used with caution. Why do most professional women give up using lipsticks in public

A. Because they are worried about being looked down upon.
B. Because it emphasizes their female features in wrong situations.
C. Because it implies women’s disadvantages in academic fields.
D. Because they are ashamed to be seen making up in front of males.

39.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. concerned B. indignant C. angry D. unsatisfied

40.On the high-speed train from Avignon (阿维尼翁) to Paris, my husband and I landed in the only remaining seats on the train, in the middle of a car, directly opposite a Frenchwoman of middle years. It was an extremely uncomfortable arrangement to be looking straight into the eyes of a stranger. My husband and I pulled out books. The woman produced a large makeup case and proceeded to freshen up. Except for a lunch break, she continued this activity for the entire three-hour trip. Every once in a while she surveyed the car with a bright-eyed glance, but never once did she catch my (admittedly fascinated) eye. My husband and I could have been a blank wall. I was amused, but some people would have felt insulted, even repulsed (厌恶的). There is something about primping in public that calls up strong emotional reactions. Partly it’s a question of hygiene. (Nearly everyone agrees that nail-paling and hair-combing are socially considered unwise to do.) And it’s a matter of degree. Grooming—a private act—has a way of negating the presence of others. I was once seated at a party with a model- actress who immediately waved a silly brush and began dusting her face at the table, demonstrating that while she was next to me, she was not with me. In fact, I am generally inhibited from this maneuver in public, except when I am in the company of cosmetics executives (when it’s considered unpleasant not to do it) or my female friends when it’s a fun just-us-girls moment. In a gathering more professional than social, I would refrain. Kathy Peiss, a history professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and an authority on American beauty rituals, says that nose-powdering in the office was an occasion for outrage in 1920’s and 30’s. Deploring the practice as a waste of company time, trade journals advised managers to discourage it among clerical workers. But how much time could it take Certainly the concern was out of proportion with the number of minutes lost. Peiss theorizes that it was the blatant assertion of a female practice in what had been an all-male province that disturbed critics. Peiss tells me that after the 30’s, pulling out a compact was no longer an issue. It became an accepted practice. I ask if she feels free to apply lipstick at a professional lunch herself. Sounding mildly shocked, she says she would save that for the privacy of her car afterward. Why Because it would be "a gesture of inappropriate femininity. " One guess is that most professional women feel this way. There is evidence of the popularity of the new lipsticks that remain in place all day without retouching. It’s amazing to think that in our talk-show society, where every sexual practice is openly discussed, a simple sex-specific gesture could still have the power to disturb. The move belongs in the female arsenal and, like weapons, must be used with caution. It can be inferred that in a highly open society, the differences between men and women ______.

A. have attracted little attention
B. hinder the social development
C. are attractive topics in talk shows
D. still call for great concern

41.The United States has a major problem on its hinds. True, Britain is facing a similar problem, but for the time being it is in America that it is graver. The only way to solve it is through education. Negroes (黑人) should know about the contributions that black individuals and groups have made towards building America. This is of vital importance for their self-respect; and it is perhaps even more important for white people to know. For if you believe that a man has no history worth mentioning, it is easy to assume that he has no value as a man. Many people believe that, since the Negro’s achievements do not appear in the history books, he did not have any. Most people are taken aback when they learn that Negroes sailed with Columbus, marched with the Spanish conquerors of South America and fought side by side with white Americans in all their wars. People are astonished when you tell them about Phillis Wheatley, who learned English as a salve in Boston and wrote first-class poetry. They have never heard of Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and a surveyor, who helped to plan the city of Washington. There has been a tendency all along to treat the black man as if he were invisible. Little has been written about the 5,000 American Negroes who fought in the Revolution against the British, but they were in every important battle. In the Anglo-American War of 1812, at least one out of every six men in the U.S. Navy was a Negro. In the Civil War, more than 200,000 black troops fought in the Union forces. How, then, did the image of the Negro as a valiant fighting man disappear To justify the hideous institution of slavery, slave-holders had to create the myth of the docile, slow-witted Negro, incapable of self-improvement, and even contented with his lot. Nothing could be further from the truth. The slave fought for his freedom at every chance he got, and there were numerous uprisings. Yet the myth of docility persisted. There are several other areas where the truth has been twisted or concealed. Most people have heard of the Negro, Carver, who invented scores of new uses for the lowly peanut. But whoever heard of Norbert Rillieux, who in 1846 invented a vacuum pan that revolutionized the sugar-refining industry Or of Elijah McCoy, who in 1872 invented the drip cup that feeds oil to the moving parts of heavy machinery How many people know that Negroes are credited with inventing such different items as ice creams, potato chips, the gas mask and the first traffic light Not many. As for the winning of the West, the black cowboy and the black frontiersman have been almost ignored, though film producers are becoming more aware of their importance. Yet in the typical trail crew of eight men that drove cattle from Texas to Kansas, at least two would have been Negroes. The black troops of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry formed one-fifth of all the mounted troops assigned to protect the frontier after the Civil War. "What difference does it make" you may ask. A lot. The cowboy is the American folk-hero. Youngsters identify with him instantly. The average cowboy film is really a kind of morality play, with good guys and bad guys and right finally triumphing over wrong. You should see the amazement and happiness on black youngsters’ faces when they learn that their ancestors really had a part in all that. According to the author, examples such as Rillieux and McCoy ______.

A. implied that black people are all talented
B. encouraged more blacks to make inventions
C. spurred the economic development at their times
D. proved Negroes’ great talent in invention

42.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. trained B. restrained C. prepared D. aged

43.The United States has a major problem on its hinds. True, Britain is facing a similar problem, but for the time being it is in America that it is graver. The only way to solve it is through education. Negroes (黑人) should know about the contributions that black individuals and groups have made towards building America. This is of vital importance for their self-respect; and it is perhaps even more important for white people to know. For if you believe that a man has no history worth mentioning, it is easy to assume that he has no value as a man. Many people believe that, since the Negro’s achievements do not appear in the history books, he did not have any. Most people are taken aback when they learn that Negroes sailed with Columbus, marched with the Spanish conquerors of South America and fought side by side with white Americans in all their wars. People are astonished when you tell them about Phillis Wheatley, who learned English as a salve in Boston and wrote first-class poetry. They have never heard of Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and a surveyor, who helped to plan the city of Washington. There has been a tendency all along to treat the black man as if he were invisible. Little has been written about the 5,000 American Negroes who fought in the Revolution against the British, but they were in every important battle. In the Anglo-American War of 1812, at least one out of every six men in the U.S. Navy was a Negro. In the Civil War, more than 200,000 black troops fought in the Union forces. How, then, did the image of the Negro as a valiant fighting man disappear To justify the hideous institution of slavery, slave-holders had to create the myth of the docile, slow-witted Negro, incapable of self-improvement, and even contented with his lot. Nothing could be further from the truth. The slave fought for his freedom at every chance he got, and there were numerous uprisings. Yet the myth of docility persisted. There are several other areas where the truth has been twisted or concealed. Most people have heard of the Negro, Carver, who invented scores of new uses for the lowly peanut. But whoever heard of Norbert Rillieux, who in 1846 invented a vacuum pan that revolutionized the sugar-refining industry Or of Elijah McCoy, who in 1872 invented the drip cup that feeds oil to the moving parts of heavy machinery How many people know that Negroes are credited with inventing such different items as ice creams, potato chips, the gas mask and the first traffic light Not many. As for the winning of the West, the black cowboy and the black frontiersman have been almost ignored, though film producers are becoming more aware of their importance. Yet in the typical trail crew of eight men that drove cattle from Texas to Kansas, at least two would have been Negroes. The black troops of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry formed one-fifth of all the mounted troops assigned to protect the frontier after the Civil War. "What difference does it make" you may ask. A lot. The cowboy is the American folk-hero. Youngsters identify with him instantly. The average cowboy film is really a kind of morality play, with good guys and bad guys and right finally triumphing over wrong. You should see the amazement and happiness on black youngsters’ faces when they learn that their ancestors really had a part in all that. Black youngsters are happy to see Negroes on the screen because they are ______.

A. proud of their ancestors’ participation in building up the image of heroic Americans
B. thrilled to see their ancestors riding side by side with American whites
C. excited to know blacks have the right to shoot a role in films
D. amazed to find their ancestors were as strong and charming as white people

44.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. explain B. judge C. see D. find

45.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. inquiry B. appeal C. case D. dispute

46.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. still B. either C. then D. however

47.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. conclude B. contend C. confine D. condemn

48.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. uphold B. invade C. abuse D. violate

49.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. human B. lesser C. well D. better

50.The sensational news a couple of years ago that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. That is a (62) reaction. Cloning is a (63) challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, (64) it is not unreasonable to be (65) that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust—sort of "yuck(令人厌恶的事物)factor. " And that makes it hard for even (66) scientists and ethicists to (67) the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive (68) that it would do any real harm, (69) . Theologians (神学专家) (70) that to clone a human would (71) human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a (72) being, with fewer rights or lower (73) . But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn’t share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity." (74) did he come up with such a right It makes perfect (75) to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated Many of the science fiction scenarios(剧情) (76) by the prospect of human cloning turn out, (77) reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There is the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts" (78) the original child needs an organ (79) . But parents of (80) twins don’t view one child (81) an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children’s parents be any different A. position B. statue C. status D. height

试卷来源:易哈佛

总分:100分

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